Nichtempirische Begründungen von Wissen und Verstehen
Phenomenology and hermeneutics are two powerful strategies to avoid the apories of realism and empiricism, in particular the problem of the first experience. To give a background to these alternatives, I will highlight the core theses of realistic and empirical positions from three periods. With regard to phenomenology particular emphasis is placed on the intentionality whereby cogito and cogitatum are together right from the outset, and as concerns hermeneutics on the thesis that our understanding is based on the prior knowledge (Vorwissen). I cover the problems of both movements, in particular the solipsism and the apparent relativism and ask how to prevent them. At the end you will find a presentation of Meinungswelten, which allows us to keep realism in everyday life and nonetheless gives a nonrealistic and nonempirical foundation to our knowledge and understanding.
Knowledge a priori, opinion–based worlds (Meinungswelten), fundamental opinions, first experience